CATEGORY I: MINIMAL RISKS; LOW PROTECTION REQUIREMENT
Gloves of simple design as protection against minimal risks (e.g. household gloves). Apart from the CE marking the glove and/or the smallest packaging unit must be labelled "For minimal risks only". No external testing necessary.
CATEGORY II: NORMAL RISKS
The gloves must be type-tested by a notified test institute. They must bear the CE marking as well as one or several pictograms and performance levels.
CATEGORY III: HIGH (MORTAL) RISKS
The gloves must provide protection against irreversible harm and mortal hazards. Apart from the type-testing the production facility must be subjected to continuous monitoring by a test body. The gloves must bear the CE marking, one or several pictograms, the performance levels and the "distinguishing" (ID) number of the notified test body.

EN 420: Protective gloves. General requirements and test methods
This standard defines the relevant test methods and general requirements regarding the design principles, glove construction, resistance of the glove material to water penetration, chemical safety, comfort and performance applicable to all protective gloves. The manufacturer must fulfil their duty to inform by attaching appropriate symbols and instructions on the packaging and by enclosing an information brochure which provides additional information for the consumer such as care, storage, information regarding use conditions, particular risks, use prohibitions, etc.
This is indicated by a book symbol with an "i".

EN 388: Protective gloves against mechanical risks
The following parameters are tested:
Abrasion resistance (levels 0 to 4): Number of abrasion cycles required to abrade through the tested glove.
Cut resistance (Performance levels 0 - 5): Index which is calculated based on the number of test cycles required to cut through the test glove at constant speed.
Tear resistance (Performance levels 0 - 4): Force required to tear a crack in a square sample along half the length.
Puncture resistance (Performance levels 0 - 4): Force required to pierce the test glove with a steel point with defined mass.

The performance levels achieved are given in this order below the pictogram. Level "0" means that the gloves have not achieved performance level 1. Where an "X" is given instead of a number, this indicates that the glove has not been tested for the relevant risk or that testing was not possible. The higher the value, the better the test result.

EN 374-2: Protective gloves against chemicals and micro-organisms
- Part 2: Determination of resistance to penetration
If the protective glove passes the penetration test successfully (air leak and/or water leak test) and achieves at least level 2 in the penetration test
(Levels 1 - 3, 3 = best value), it is deemed to be penetration-tight against microorganisms.

PERFORMANCE LEVEL AQL (acceptable quality level) TEST LEVELS TO ISO 2859
Level 111 < 0,65d&gt; G1
Level 11 < 1,5d&gt; G1
Level 1 < 4,0d&gt; S4


EN 374-3: Protective gloves against chemicals and micro-organisms
- Part 3: Determination of the resistance to permeation by chemicals
The permeation time (penetration time) is the time a certain chemical requires to penetrate the glove material.
There are six performance levels:
  • Performance level 1 &gt; 10 min
  • Performance level 2 &gt; 30 min
  • Performance level 3 &gt; 60 min
  • Performance level 4 &gt; 120 min
  • Performance level 5 &gt; 240 min
  • Performance level 6 &gt; 480 min
(The performance level is not given on the glove as different substances have different permeation times. Increased temperature and elongation can reduce the wearing time by 50 %.)

At least 3 code letters are given below the "chemical resistant" pictogram.
The letters can be assigned to the respective test chemicals with the help of the following table.

EN 511: Protective gloves against cold
The following parameters are tested:
Convective cold (Performance levels 0 - 4):
thermal insulation property which is measured by the transfer of cold by convection.
Contact cold (Performance levels 0 - 4):
thermal resistance in direct contact with a cold object.
Water penetration (Performance levels 0/1):
1 = water penetration after 30 minutes of exposure
0 = no water penetration

The performance levels achieved are given in this order below the pictogram. Level "0" means that the gloves have not achieved performance level 1. Where an "X" is given instead of a number, this indicates that the glove has not been tested for the relevant risk or that testing was not possible. The higher the value, the better the test result.

Material information


Textile



Acrylic
soft and warm fibre; used for example for thermal gloves to protect against the cold, resistant to standard commercial solvents and low concentration acids and alkalis, high tension and abrasion resistance.

Cotton
soft natural fibre, low allergy potential, very absorbent and high degree of comfort for wearing for lengthy periods; mixing cotton and polyester fibres increases mechanical strength and elasticity.

Bamboo fibre
soft fibre, temperature-equalising and breathable, fast renewable raw material source.

High density polyethylene (HDPE)
Polyethylene fibres with high density, toughness and elongation at break, low moisture absorbency, good chemical resistance, high abrasion or wear resistance, is used for example for cut protection gloves.

Nylon
Lightweight, elastic polyamide fibre, good chemical resistance, very good tear resistance, mostly low-lint content and easily washable, good moisture absorbency, high abrasion resistance and toughness, long life.

Polyester
Particularly easy-care, low creasing tendency, very elastic, good tear and wear resistance, low moisture absorbency.

Spandex
Elastane (Spandex, Lycra) is elastic and describes all fibres made of 85 % polyurethane, age, seawater and UV-resistant, used in stretch fabrics and cuffs and when stretched returns to its precise original form.


Coatings




Latex
Natural rubber, very flexible and elastic, good reliable grip and abrasion resistance, very robust, protects against weak acids, caustic substances and cleaning products, waterproof, however, high allergy potential.

Latex foam
See latex; however, better climate control due to open pores, surface is water repellent, not waterproof.

Nitrile
synthetic rubber, good mechanical properties, outstanding resistance to oil and grease, good resistance to low concentration acids, certain organic solvents as well as fuels.

Nitrile foam
See nitrile; however, better climate control due to open pores, surface is water repellent, not waterproof.

Polyurethane (PU)
Depending on the type of manufacture is hard and brittle or very flexible and elastic, good abrasion resistance, tear resistance (in elastic form) and oil resistance.

TPE or TPR (thermoplastic rubber/elastomers)
If heated is plastic and when cooled is elastic, TPEs&apos; performance lies between that of plastic (thermoplastics) and rubber (elastomers) - easy workability as with plastic and important properties of rubber, easily recoverable and recyclable.


Leather



Grain leather
Grain leather is the upper layer of the skin, which is processed on the flesh side to produce the thickness required for the intended purpose. The surface is firm and smooth and is therefore resistant to oils and greases and is more weather resistant than suede.

Suede
Suede is a collective term used to describe leather qualities with a roughened surface, which are ground on the flesh or grain side (split leather). Suede is characterised by its higher strength (denser fibre structure than grain leather of the same thickness) and can therefore be used for heat resistant and "cut resistant" gloves, e.g. for welder&apos;s gloves.

Furniture leather
Furniture leather is grain leather which is covered by a protective topcoat. The intact natural pore structure is present but is no longer visible due to the surface treatment. It is less soft to touch, but fulfils higher requirements regarding lightfastness and rubbing fastness, it is robust and insensitive and is very suitable for more intensive use.


Hearing protection

The following applies according to EU Directive 2003/10/EC:
EN 352-1 Hearing protectors. Safety requirements and testing. Ear-muffs
EN 352-2 Hearing protectors. Safety requirements and testing. Ear-plugs



Eye protection

All personal eye protection is covered in EN 166. According to this standard, figures and letters on the sight glass and frame provide information, among other things, about the protection level, mechanical strength, resistance to light arcs and against fogging of the eye protection.

EN 166: Personal eye protection; specifications

Hazards which require eye protection:



Oculars:


Safety helmets

EN 397 - Industrial safety helmets

Basic requirements:

A firm and good fit on the head should be ensured, depending on the field of activity, and can be assisted by an adjustable interior harness and additional fixing straps.
For uses with special circumstances, for example, very high or low temperatures, possible accidental contact with alternating voltages, hazard due to molten metal and risk due to lateral loading, safety helmets must be worn which satisfy these standards.


Knee protection

EN 14404 - Personal protective equipment. Knee protectors for work in the kneeling position
Minimum values for:


Performance levels:


The following should be noted and complied with when wearing knee pads:


Respiratory protection


If technical and organisational measures are unable to ensure breathing air quality adequately, suitable respiratory protection must be used.
Efficient prevention of health risks by respiratory protection requires correct selection and consistent use and maintenance of the respiratory protection.
The employer must inform themselves about possible air pollutants in the workplace, evaluate the workplaces and if necessary provide suitable respiratory protection.
The employee must wear the respiratory protection provided to them during their entire time in the danger zone.

EN 149: Respiratory protective devices. Filtering half masks to protect against particles. Requirements, testing, marking

The occupational exposure limits (OEL) indicate the concentration of a substance at which acute or chronic harmful effects on health are not generally expected. The limit values are based on existing occupational medicine and toxicological knowledge.


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Protective gloves

Council Directive 89/686/EEC regarding personal protective equipment (PPE) differentiates between protection against "minimal", "normal" and "high (mortal)" risks.

CATEGORY I: MINIMAL RISKS; LOW PROTECTION REQUIREMENT
Gloves of simple design as protection against minimal risks (e.g. household gloves). Apart from the CE marking the glove and/or the smallest packaging unit must be labelled "For minimal risks only". No external testing necessary.
CATEGORY II: NORMAL RISKS
The gloves must be type-tested by a notified test institute. They must bear the CE marking as well as one or several pictograms and performance levels.
CATEGORY III: HIGH (MORTAL) RISKS
The gloves must provide protection against irreversible harm and mortal hazards. Apart from the type-testing the production facility must be subjected to continuous monitoring by a test body. The gloves must bear the CE marking, one or several pictograms, the performance levels and the "distinguishing" (ID) number of the notified test body.

EN 420: Protective gloves. General requirements and test methods
This standard defines the relevant test methods and general requirements regarding the design principles, glove construction, resistance of the glove material to water penetration, chemical safety, comfort and performance applicable to all protective gloves. The manufacturer must fulfil their duty to inform by attaching appropriate symbols and instructions on the packaging and by enclosing an information brochure which provides additional information for the consumer such as care, storage, information regarding use conditions, particular risks, use prohibitions, etc.
This is indicated by a book symbol with an "i".

EN 388: Protective gloves against mechanical risks
The following parameters are tested:
Abrasion resistance (levels 0 to 4): Number of abrasion cycles required to abrade through the tested glove.
Cut resistance (Performance levels 0 - 5): Index which is calculated based on the number of test cycles required to cut through the test glove at constant speed.
Tear resistance (Performance levels 0 - 4): Force required to tear a crack in a square sample along half the length.
Puncture resistance (Performance levels 0 - 4): Force required to pierce the test glove with a steel point with defined mass.

The performance levels achieved are given in this order below the pictogram. Level "0" means that the gloves have not achieved performance level 1. Where an "X" is given instead of a number, this indicates that the glove has not been tested for the relevant risk or that testing was not possible. The higher the value, the better the test result.

EN 374-2: Protective gloves against chemicals and micro-organisms
- Part 2: Determination of resistance to penetration
If the protective glove passes the penetration test successfully (air leak and/or water leak test) and achieves at least level 2 in the penetration test
(Levels 1 - 3, 3 = best value), it is deemed to be penetration-tight against microorganisms.

PERFORMANCE LEVEL AQL (acceptable quality level) TEST LEVELS TO ISO 2859
Level 111 < 0,65d&gt;G1
Level 11 < 1,5d&gt;G1
Level 1 < 4,0d&gt;S4


EN 374-3: Protective gloves against chemicals and micro-organisms
- Part 3: Determination of the resistance to permeation by chemicals
The permeation time (penetration time) is the time a certain chemical requires to penetrate the glove material.
There are six performance levels:
  • Performance level 1 &gt; 10 min
  • Performance level 2 &gt; 30 min
  • Performance level 3 &gt; 60 min
  • Performance level 4 &gt; 120 min
  • Performance level 5 &gt; 240 min
  • Performance level 6 &gt; 480 min
(The performance level is not given on the glove as different substances have different permeation times. Increased temperature and elongation can reduce the wearing time by 50 %.)

At least 3 code letters are given below the "chemical resistant" pictogram.
The letters can be assigned to the respective test chemicals with the help of the following table.

EN 511: Protective gloves against cold
The following parameters are tested:
Convective cold (Performance levels 0 - 4):
thermal insulation property which is measured by the transfer of cold by convection.
Contact cold (Performance levels 0 - 4):
thermal resistance in direct contact with a cold object.
Water penetration (Performance levels 0/1):
1 = water penetration after 30 minutes of exposure
0 = no water penetration

The performance levels achieved are given in this order below the pictogram. Level "0" means that the gloves have not achieved performance level 1. Where an "X" is given instead of a number, this indicates that the glove has not been tested for the relevant risk or that testing was not possible. The higher the value, the better the test result.

Material information


Textile



Acrylic
soft and warm fibre; used for example for thermal gloves to protect against the cold, resistant to standard commercial solvents and low concentration acids and alkalis, high tension and abrasion resistance.

Cotton
soft natural fibre, low allergy potential, very absorbent and high degree of comfort for wearing for lengthy periods; mixing cotton and polyester fibres increases mechanical strength and elasticity.

Bamboo fibre
soft fibre, temperature-equalising and breathable, fast renewable raw material source.

High density polyethylene (HDPE)
Polyethylene fibres with high density, toughness and elongation at break, low moisture absorbency, good chemical resistance, high abrasion or wear resistance, is used for example for cut protection gloves.

Nylon
Lightweight, elastic polyamide fibre, good chemical resistance, very good tear resistance, mostly low-lint content and easily washable, good moisture absorbency, high abrasion resistance and toughness, long life.

Polyester
Particularly easy-care, low creasing tendency, very elastic, good tear and wear resistance, low moisture absorbency.

Spandex
Elastane (Spandex, Lycra) is elastic and describes all fibres made of 85 % polyurethane, age, seawater and UV-resistant, used in stretch fabrics and cuffs and when stretched returns to its precise original form.


Coatings




Latex
Natural rubber, very flexible and elastic, good reliable grip and abrasion resistance, very robust, protects against weak acids, caustic substances and cleaning products, waterproof, however, high allergy potential.

Latex foam
See latex; however, better climate control due to open pores, surface is water repellent, not waterproof.

Nitrile
synthetic rubber, good mechanical properties, outstanding resistance to oil and grease, good resistance to low concentration acids, certain organic solvents as well as fuels.

Nitrile foam
See nitrile; however, better climate control due to open pores, surface is water repellent, not waterproof.

Polyurethane (PU)
Depending on the type of manufacture is hard and brittle or very flexible and elastic, good abrasion resistance, tear resistance (in elastic form) and oil resistance.

TPE or TPR (thermoplastic rubber/elastomers)
If heated is plastic and when cooled is elastic, TPEs&apos; performance lies between that of plastic (thermoplastics) and rubber (elastomers) - easy workability as with plastic and important properties of rubber, easily recoverable and recyclable.


Leather



Grain leather
Grain leather is the upper layer of the skin, which is processed on the flesh side to produce the thickness required for the intended purpose. The surface is firm and smooth and is therefore resistant to oils and greases and is more weather resistant than suede.

Suede
Suede is a collective term used to describe leather qualities with a roughened surface, which are ground on the flesh or grain side (split leather). Suede is characterised by its higher strength (denser fibre structure than grain leather of the same thickness) and can therefore be used for heat resistant and "cut resistant" gloves, e.g. for welder&apos;s gloves.

Furniture leather
Furniture leather is grain leather which is covered by a protective topcoat. The intact natural pore structure is present but is no longer visible due to the surface treatment. It is less soft to touch, but fulfils higher requirements regarding lightfastness and rubbing fastness, it is robust and insensitive and is very suitable for more intensive use.


Hearing protection

The following applies according to EU Directive 2003/10/EC:
  • If the noise exposure level of an employee exceeds the exposure action value of 80 dB, the employer must provide appropriate hearing protection.
  • If the exposure limit of 85 dB is exceeded, hearing protection must be worn, which is chosen so that the effective sound pressure level acting on the ear does not exceed the exposure limit value.
EN 352-1 Hearing protectors. Safety requirements and testing. Ear-muffs
  • Ear muffs similar to headphones, rigid plastic shells with sound insulating padding
  • mostly for short-term use
EN 352-2 Hearing protectors. Safety requirements and testing. Ear-plugs
  • Ear plugs mostly made of silicone, plastic or foam, for pre-shaping or supplied already shaped, for single or repeated use
  • also available with a strap or plastic headband (headband ear-plugs)



Eye protection

All personal eye protection is covered in EN 166. According to this standard, figures and letters on the sight glass and frame provide information, among other things, about the protection level, mechanical strength, resistance to light arcs and against fogging of the eye protection.

EN 166: Personal eye protection; specifications

Hazards which require eye protection:
  • Hazards due to light: UV radiation, infrared light, laser and visible light
  • Chemical and biological hazards: Lyes, infected blood, solvents and acid splashes
  • Hazards due to electricity: direct contact with current, light arcs due to short circuit
  • Thermal hazards: Flames, splashes of molten material, and hot liquids
  • Mechanical hazards: Particles, impact and dust



Oculars:
  • Clear ocular: Protects from UV light, suitable e.g. as protection against abrasive particles, offers particularly sharp transparency
  • Grey ocular: Reduces dazzle and bright light, provides good colour recognition
  • Yellow ocular: Absorbs ultraviolet light, where keen vision and contrast are required, filters out dim light, very suitable for outdoor work at dusk, in semi-darkness or on foggy days (not suitable for car driving)


Safety helmets

EN 397 - Industrial safety helmets

Basic requirements:
  • Shock absorbency (through elastic and plastic deformation)
  • Penetration resistance (against pointed and sharp objects)
  • Flame resistance
  • Elastic penetration resistance
  • Guarantee an optimum fit

A firm and good fit on the head should be ensured, depending on the field of activity, and can be assisted by an adjustable interior harness and additional fixing straps.
For uses with special circumstances, for example, very high or low temperatures, possible accidental contact with alternating voltages, hazard due to molten metal and risk due to lateral loading, safety helmets must be worn which satisfy these standards.


Knee protection

EN 14404 - Personal protective equipment. Knee protectors for work in the kneeling position
  • Type 1: Knee protection, independent of other clothing, fastened onto the leg.
Minimum values for:
  • Cut resistance
  • Pressure distribution in the knee guard
  • Peak value of the transferred force


Performance levels:
  • Performance level 1: for working on flat floor surfaces.
  • Performance level 2: for working under difficult conditions, e.g. kneeling on stones in mines and quarries.


The following should be noted and complied with when wearing knee pads:
  • The load must be uniformly distributed.
  • The knee protection corresponds to the ergonomic requirements of the wearer (fit, fastening, etc.).
  • Type 1 and 2 protection must be able to allow all movements without the pads slipping.
  • The protection is waterproof and does not absorb any liquids (risk of corrosive or chemical burns!).


Respiratory protection


If technical and organisational measures are unable to ensure breathing air quality adequately, suitable respiratory protection must be used.
Efficient prevention of health risks by respiratory protection requires correct selection and consistent use and maintenance of the respiratory protection.
The employer must inform themselves about possible air pollutants in the workplace, evaluate the workplaces and if necessary provide suitable respiratory protection.
The employee must wear the respiratory protection provided to them during their entire time in the danger zone.

EN 149: Respiratory protective devices. Filtering half masks to protect against particles. Requirements, testing, marking
  • FFP1: protects against fine dusts up to 4 times the OEL - no protection against carcinogenic or radioactive substances, risk group 2 and 3 airborne biological agents or enzymes.
  • FFP2: protects against fine dusts up to 10 times the OEL - no protection against radioactive substances or risk group 3 airborne biological agents or enzymes.
  • FFP3: against fine dusts up to 30 times the OEL.

The occupational exposure limits (OEL) indicate the concentration of a substance at which acute or chronic harmful effects on health are not generally expected. The limit values are based on existing occupational medicine and toxicological knowledge.